Flora Dan Fauna Brunei Darussalam
Brunei Darussalam’s lush green rainforest is well-known for its diverse flora and fauna that attract researchers all around the world. Its marine life, which is protected, has also lured international divers to discover its hidden treasures.
The Sultanate’s rich rainforest biodiversity was showcased during the 41
Meeting of the ASEAN
Ministers on Agriculture and Forestry (41
AMAF Meeting) at The Empire Hotel & Country Club in Jerudong recently.
Fauna diversity in the country comprises 121 mammal species, 474 bird species, 182 amphibians and reptiles, and 500 species of marine fish and invertebrates.
These include the Proboscis Monkey, Tarsier, Black Crowned Night Heron, Common Flameback Woodpecker, Green Latern Bug, Flat Headed Cat, Slowloris, Borneo Clouded Leopard, Bat, Wagler Pit Viper, Moonrat, Exploding Ants, Belalong Tree Frog, Pangolin and Smooth Otter.
In terms of Brunei’s wild flora, the Sultanate has an estimated 15,000 species of vascular plants (angiosperms,
pteridophytes). It is estimated that there are 2,000 species of trees in Brunei Darussalam.
These include new species like
and species endemic to the country like
Other species found include
Since 2022, 18 new plant species from Brunei Darussalam have been discovered. They include
Seventy-two per cent of Brunei Darussalam’s besaran land wilayah is covered by forest and 41 per cent is protected by law.
Despite Brunei’s limited land provinsi, the Brunei National Herbarium has recorded 164 families of
Dicotyledons, 30 families of
Monocotyledons, four families of
Gymnosperms, 37 families of
and 16 species of
Bryophytes, including 1,178
and 4,696 species in the country.
The country has seven distinguishable types of forest: mangrove forest, beach-type forest, freshwater swamp forest, peat swamp forest, kerangas forest, mixed dipterocarp forest (MDF) and montane forest.
Meanwhile, the goal of the marine capture fisheries sector in the country is the sustainable development of marine fisheries and to attain the maximum economic yield.
The objectives are to fully exploit the marine resources up to 21,300 metric tonnes at sustainable level, to protect the nursery and breeding grounds through the establishment of marine protected areas, to promote equal sharing of marine resources between small scale and commercial fisheries sectors, to promote the usage of selective fishing gears and environmentally friendly gears to minimise the wastage of under-sized fish and to increase the marine resource productivity through resource enhancement programme.
Freezing on the issuance of new fishing licences for commercial bottom trawlers have been imposed in Zone 2 since 2000. In addition, on January 1, 2022, the nation banned the catching and landing of all shark species.
Shark trade offenders can be fined up to BND1,000 by the Fisheries Department or face court prosecution with the maximum penalty of BND10,000 or one year’s imprisonment or both, as stipulated in the Fisheries Order 2009.
Due to the tremendous increase of small scale fishermen in the near shore fishing areas, a moratorium was imposed among the small scale fishermen in fishing Zone 1 (kosong to three nautical miles from the shore) in 2008.
Marine protected areas are also established where, in January 2022, the Brunei Government designated 20 tiap-tiap cent of its total fisheries management area as ‘no take zone’ which aims to increase marine resource productivity and enhance food security through protecting and conserving marine natural heritage, specifically marine life nursery and breeding grounds (coral reef).
The areas are rich in flora and satwa. All aquatic life that has grown serves as a shelter and breeding of fish and all kinds of marine life, also known as marine reserves.