So That And Such That

Grammar-Quizzes › Connectors › Subordinators › So…that vs. Such…that

So…that vs. Such…that

Intensify a quality before stating an effect

Meteor Shower

So…that vs. Such…that

SO…THAT

So
is placed before a modifier —
adjective
or
adverb
— to intensify its quality or manner. This emphasis on the modifier expresses a remarkable situation. This clause can stand alone as a sentence, or it can be paired with
that

+ clause

to express an effect (result) of the remarkable situation mentioned in the main clause.

CAUSE EFFECT
SO + ADV / ADJ THAT + CLAUSE

The meteor storm was
so

beautiful
(Adj)

that
we watched it all night.

The meteor storm passed
so

quickly

(Adv)

that
it went by in one week.

It was
so

/ *very / *too

amazing

that
we’ll never forget it.

SUCH…THAT

Such
is placed before a
modifier and noun
to intensify the quality of the modifier. This emphasis on the noun phrase expresses a remarkable situation. This clause can stand alone as a sentence or it can be paired with
that

+ clause
to express an effect (result) of the remarkable situation mentioned in the main clause.

CAUSE EFFECT
SUCH + ADJ + NOUN THAT + CLAUSE

It was
such
a beautiful meteor storm


that

we watched it all night.

It was
such
a quick meteor storm


that

it passed by in one week.

It was
such
an amazing sight


that

we’ll never forget it.

*not used —
very
or
too

cannot be used in place of
so.

that
is omitted in informal usage

An adjective is not required in a noun phrase with
such. The quality being emphasized may be understood from contextual information.
Such stress was placed on the foundation that the building began to sink. They built it in such a way that it was likely to sink.

See Such “Uses” below.

Predeterminer modifier (a modifier placed before the article of the noun) —
such
a sight;such
a display,
such
a disaster
(Huddleston 551)

Predeterminer in a noun phrase —
You are

such a
snob
.
(Arts 152)
Such
is one of few modifiers placed before the article of the noun.

Also see Cause & Effect Overview, Determiners
(Such luck is rare),
Predeterminer Modifiers
(such, what),
So many + infinitive vs. that.
(There are so many to choose from. There are so many that we can choose.)

Word Categories:
N
– Noun;
V
– Verb;
Aux
– Auxiliary;
Adj
– Adjective;
Adv
– Adverb;
P
–Preposition;
Det
–Determiner. See Word Categories.

Phrasal Categories:
NP
– Noun Phrase;
VP
– Verb Phrase;
AdjP
– Adjective Phrase;
AdvP
– Adverb Phrase;
PP
– Prepositional Phrase;
DP
– Determinative Phrase.

Clausal Categories:
Cls
– clause;
F
– finite clause;
NF
– nonfinite clause:
Ger
– gerund;
Inf
– infinitive;
PPart
– past participle.

Word Functions:
Subj – subject;
Pred
– predicate/predicator;
Comp
– complement: an element or elements required by a word or structure to complete its meaning in the clause (e.g.,
DO
– direct object;
IO
– indirect object;
PP
– prep. phrase);Adjunct
– adjunct: elements not required by an expression to complete its meaning (Subord
– subordinator;
Coord
– coordinator);
Supl
– supplement: a clause or phrase added onto a clause that is titinada closely related to the central thought or structure of the main clause.

So…that / So [that]

Express emphasis vs. effect/result

So – Emphasis vs. Effect

INTENSIFIER

In the examples below,
so
modifies or intensifies an adjective or adverb in the cause-clause. And
that
follows in the effect-clause with a remarkable or extraordinary comment.

EVENT WITH EMPHASIS REMARKABLE EFFECT

The meteor storm was
so

beautiful

that
we watched it all night.
(remarkable)

that
we couldn’kaki langit believe our eyes.

that
we called everyone out to see it.

that
we shouted “ooow” and “awww”.

that
we wished it would never end.

*that
we watched it.
(titinada remarkable)

PREPOSITION

In the examples below,
so
is also a connective adverb complemented by a clause that expresses the logical effect or result (to the action in the main clause.)

CAUSE (NO EMPHASIS) EFFECT / RESULT

We heard about the Perseid meteors,

so
we watched the night sky to see them.

We became hungry,

so
we went inside.

I saw a falling star,

so
I made a wish.

*Yellow highlighting marks an example of incorrect usage.

Also see Modifying an Adjective – so  (degree adverbs)  and Because and FANBOYS – so  (conjunctions) and
pop question
Pop-Q Resultive “so”.

(Aarts 64, 156)

So much / Such

Emphasize quantity vs. quality

So Much vs. Such

SO MUCH / MANY

Use
so much
or
so many
to place emphasis on the quantity of the object-noun in the cause-clause.

EMPHASIS ON QUANTITY

We will learn
so much
interesting information

that
it will take years to process it.
(so much – adjective + noncount noun)

We will see
so many
beautiful stars
that
it will be hard to count them.

(so many – adjective + count noun)

SUCH

Use
such
to place emphasis on the quality of the modifier to the object-noun in the cause-clause.

EMPHASIS ON QUALITY

We will learn
such
interesting
information
that
we will want to read more.

(such – adjective + noncount noun)

We’ll see
such

beautiful

stars
that
we’ll be amazed.
(such – adjective + count noun)

*We’ll see
so beautiful
stars
that
we’ll be amazed.

(incorrect)

Also see  Using Much & Many |  Count and Non-count Nouns

Solution - lightbulbPop-Q “Such that”

“Such” Expressions

Differentiate “such” usage

Such

SUCH IN A SENTENCE

SUCH

of the kind

Such things

are hard to understand
.

[modifier] “the kind already mentioned”

SUCH

so much

It was

such a cold

da
y. (NOT

a such cold day
)

[predeterminer modifier] emphasizes a description

SUCH

so much → result

It was

such a cold

da
y
that
we stayed inside.

[predeterminer modifier] cause-effect

SUCH

of the kind→ result

The damage from the storm was

such
that it took weeks to recover.

[pronoun]  cause-effect

SUCH AS

for example

Bring warm clothes

such as

wool sweaters, hats, and boots.

[pronoun + prep phrase]   “of the kind as…”

SUCH A WAY

in the manner

The wind blew

in such a way

that it destroyed trees.

[modifier] in this manner

SUCH AS IT IS

this as it is

The economy

such as it is

requires a boost of some kind.

[pronoun] “in its present state”  (titinada so good)

SUCH (NOUN)

of a particular group

Such people

say one thing but do another.

[determiner] generalizing expression; “of this kind”

SUCH IN A SENTENCE

AS SUCH

like this

We will titinada accept the contract

as such
. Revise it.

[pronoun] “as it exists now”

SUCH-AND-SUCH

this and that

He is always talking about

such-and-such a

diet
.

[pronoun] “one or another” (indefinite); informal use

SUCH IS THE CASE

this/that

You need to show your ID.

Such is the case.

[pronoun] “this as mentioned”

SUCH

that

to the degree

His pride was
such

that
he wouldn’t hire a translator.  [pronoun]  “to the extent that”

NO SUCH LUCK

disappointment

We thought we would win. But

no such luck.

[modifier] “things happened differently than hoped”

NO SUCH THING

doesn’t exist
(“a unicorn”)

We looked for a computer technician who could manage people. But we found

no such person
.

[modifier] “the combination didn’t exist”

AND SUCH

and the like

We discussed politics, the economy, culture,

and such.

[pronoun] “other things like those mentioned”

SUCH A __!

truly!

Such an exciting day!  What a remarkable day!

[predeterminer modifier] [interjections]

Also see How and What Expressions.  (What a disaster! Such a disaster!)

Common Mistakes

Errors and Solutions

Error and Solution

ERROR

*The night was so cold that
we were cold.
The result is unremarkable. It doesn’t need emphasis. Use “and”.

*The night was
very
cold
that
we were shivering.
Use “so…that”.

shiver(V) –to shake slightly because of the cold

*It was
so cold night
that we wore extra layers.

It was
so cold a night
that we wore extra layers.
(archaic)

SOLUTION

The night was
so
cold
that
we perenggan to wear two coats / we had to turn the heat on in the car / we batas to put a camping blanket around us.

When emphasizing a cause-effect relationship, the effect should be something unusual or remarkable.

The night was
so
cold
that
we were shivering.

When stating a cause-effect relationship,

very

is not used.

Very

is used to intensify the quality of an adjective, adverb.  See Adv for Degree.

It was
such a cold night
that we wore extra layers.

Use

such


before a singular count noun (

a night
).

archaic (Adj) – older usage; commonly used in an earlier time but rare in present-day usage except to suggest the older time, as in poetry, prose or historical novels.

► Show Grammar Notes and Works Cited ▼ Hide Grammar Notes

Grammar Notes
(Advanced)

Traditional Grammar and Linguistic Description

SO SUCH

So
is a degree adverb without an
-ly
suffix.  (Huddleston 584)

“Conditions under which that must or may appear”  (Huddleston 952)

Such
is one of the few adjectives that occurs before the determiner.  (Huddleston 435, 967)

I’ve never seen such disorganization. (adjective + noncount noun)
It was such a sight!
(adj + a + count noun) predeterminer adjective
What a sight!
(adj + a + noun)
Also:
How

smart a boy is he?

As

smart a boy as he is, he still needs to study.

Too

large a pizza won’ufuk segak the oven.

So

great a man you will never find again.

SUBJECT – PREDICATE SUBJECT – PREDICATE

So diagram

Such diagram

DETAIL – SO BEAUTIFUL THAT DETAIL – SUCH A BEAUTIFUL…THAT

So diagram

It was such a beautiful meteor shower that we watched it all night.

Clause; Word Functions; Finite / Nonfinite;
NP
–noun phrase;
N
– noun;
VP – verb phrase;
V
– verb;
Comp
– complement;
Det
– determiner;
Adj
–  adjective;
AdjP
– adjective phrase;
PP
– prepositional phrase;
P
– preposition;
Sub
– Subordinator

Resources

  • Aarts, Bas.
    Oxford Modern English Grammar.
    Oxford UP, 2022.
  • Azar, Betty Schrampfer, and Stacy A. Hagen.
    Understanding and Using English Grammar.
    4th ed., Pearson Education, 2009.
  • Huddleston, Rodney D., and Geoffrey K. Pullum.
    The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language.
    Cambridge UP, 2002.
  • Swan, Michael.
    Practical English Usage.
    3rd ed., Oxford UP, 2005.

Practice

Watching the Perseid Meteor Showers

meteor shower

Read the Context

Last night, the sky was cloudy. We couldn’kaki langit see much.  Then, the clouds passed and the night sky became visible. The Perseid meteor showers began to appear.

The comet Swift-Tuttle only comes every 133 years. However, this meteor shower occurs every year when Earth moves through the debris trail of the comet Swift-Tuttle’s orbit.  Its dust and debris burn up in Earth’s atmosphere. These burning bits are meteors, “fireballs”. They are also called “shooting stars”. The Perseid meteor shower is an awesome sight.

The shooting stars appear frequently. You can see two or three a minute. The meteor particles are small. They burn up before they reach Earth. In fact, the meteor particles move very fast. They become bullets in space. For this reason, a meteor storm is a big threat to satellites. They have to be moved or turned away from the storm.

Scientists consider this a unique opportunity. They fly in aircraft to get above the clouds and study the meteor showers better. These observations will reveal important information. Scientists will be studying data for years.

aircraft (N) singular & bineka— any man-made machine that can fly

atmosphere (N) — the mixture of gases that surrounds Earth.

bullets (N) — extremely high speed objects (as in ammunition in a gun)

debris (N) singular – the remains of something broken down and destroyed;

dust (N) – tiny dry bits, powder

meteor (N) — a piece of rock or metal that travels through space, and makes a bright line in the night sky when it falls down towards Earth

meteor storm / shower (Horizon)  — a period when a large number of meteors fall toward Earth

NASA – National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA nasa.gov/Watch_the_Skies/2021/07/30/the-perseids-are-on-the-rise/

observation (N) — the process of watching something or someone carefully for a period of time

occurrence (N) — happening; event

particles (N) — small pieces or bits; dust, debris

reveal  (V) — to make known something that was a secret or unknown; uncover, discover

satellite (Falak) — a machine sent into space and goes around Earth, moon or some other bintang beredar

shooting stars or falling stars (Lengkung langit) — pieces of rock or besi

threat (N) — something that can cause harm or damage

unique (Adj) — being the only one of its kind; special

wake (N) — the particles that are spread out behind the comet from space and that burn brightly as they fall toward Earth, “tail”

Change the sentence from the story to a
so that
or
such that

sentence.

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence.
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the “check” or “check 1-10” button.

1.


2.


3.

that
it only comes every 133 years.


4.


5.


6.

that
they burn up before they reach Earth.


7.

that
they become bullets in space.


8.


9.

that
they are flying in aircraft to study it.


10.

that
scientists will be studying results for years.



  • “Up All Night to Watch the Perseids.” 12 Aug 2022. nasa.gov/connect/chat/perseids_2011.html. Accessed 29 Jul 2022.
  • “Comet Swift-Tuttle: The Icy Parent of the Perseid Meteor Shower.” By Sarah Lewin, 9 Aug. 2022. space.com/33677-comet-swift-tuttle-perseid-meteor-shower-source.html. Accessed 29 Jul 2022.
  • “Perseid Meteor Shower 2022: When, Where & How to See It.” By Sarah Lewin, 9 Jul. 2022, space.com/32868-perseid-meteor-shower-guide.html. Accessed 29 Jul 2022.

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